Why Did Marie Antoinette Say Let Them Eat Cake?

“Let them eat cake” is the most famous quote attributed to Marie-Antoinette, the queen of France during the French Revolution. As the story goes, it was the queen’s response upon being told that her starving peasant subjects had no bread.
At some point in 1789, after being told that the French population was facing a bread shortage, because of the poor crop harvest and the rodents, and as a result, was starving, Marie Antoinette replied with “let them eat cake!” Cake, obviously being a more expensive item than bread just went on to show how out of touch
An often-repeated example of Marie Antionette’s callousness towards her people is the phrase ‘let them eat cake ’, in response to hearing that they could not afford bread. The origin of the phrase appears to come from Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Confession, which is a series of books written in 1765 and published in 1782.

What is the real story behind Marie Antoinette’s “let them eat cake”?

Let Them Eat Cake! The real story behind Marie Antoinette’s saying… Let them eat cake! This famous phrase is infamously attributed to Marie Antoinette, Queen of France during the French Revolution. The story goes that the people of France were starving.

What is the most famous quote from Marie Antoinette?

Let Them Eat Cake, Marie-Antoinette’s unforgettable words are among the most famous quotes in history. Did Marie-Antoinette say Let Them Eat Cake?.

What did Marie-Antoinette say about bread?

Marie-Antoinette was King Louis XVI’s wife and the Queen of France during the French Revolution. At some point around 1789, when being told that her starving subjects had no bread, Marie-Antoinette supposedly sniffed, ‘Qu’ils mangent de la brioche’- ‘Let Them Eat Cake’ in French.

What did Marie Antoinette say about starving people?

Let them eat cake! This famous phrase is infamously attributed to Marie Antoinette, Queen of France during the French Revolution. The story goes that the people of France were starving. A poor crop harvest, rodents and a whole number of other factors led to an enormous bread shortage.

Why was let them eat cake offensive?

“Let them eat cake’ is offensive because French Queen, Marie Antoinette, when told that her subjects were starving and had no bread, callously replied “Well, let them eat cake, then’. This is what Queen Marie Antoinette of France sometime in the 1700s said when she was told that the people of France were hungry.

Did Antoinette really say let them eat cake?

The quick answer to this question is a simple ‘no.’ Marie Antoinette, the last pre-revolutionary queen of France, did not say ‘Let them eat cake’ when confronted with news that Parisian peasants were so desperately poor they couldn’t afford bread.

What was Marie Antoinette famous for?

Queen of France before the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette (1755–93) is famous for being overthrown by revolutionaries and being publicly guillotined following the abolition of the monarchy in France.

What were Marie Antoinette’s last words?

As Marie Antoinette ascended the stairs to the scaffold, she accidentally trod on the foot of her executioner. A lady to the very end, she apologized to him; her final words were “I did not do it on purpose.” The former queen of France lost her head at 15 minutes past midday. Marie Antoinette’s death was now complete.

What is cake slang for?

A cake is used as slang to refer to a nice ass. It helps convey complex meaning with easy language. The comparison is done due to cakes resembling a woman’s ass and to avoid the use of inappropriate words.

What happened to Marie Antoinette’s head?

Lamballe refused to take an oath against the monarchy, and on September 3, 1792, she was delivered to the hands of a Parisian mob; they cut off her head and paraded it on a pike outside Marie-Antoinette’s windows.

Is Let Them Eat Cake offensive?

At some point around 1789, when being told that her French subjects had no bread, Marie-Antoinette (bride of France’s King Louis XVI) supposedly sniffed, “Qu’ils mangent de la brioche”—“Let them eat cake.” With that callous remark, the queen became a hated symbol of the decadent monarchy and fueled the revolution that

Is Marie Antoinette movie accurate?

While the movie isn’t entirely accurate, the aesthetics of the film are undeniably unique and pleasing. The pastel colors, exotic fashion and gorgeous peek into the ornate lifestyle of Marie Anotinette and Louis XVI is executed beautifully (no pun intended).

What is Marie Antoinette syndrome?

Marie Antoinette syndrome designates the condition in which scalp hair suddenly turns white. The name alludes to the unhappy Queen Marie Antoinette of France (1755-1793), whose hair allegedly turned white the night before her last walk to the guillotine during the French Revolution.

Are there any living relatives of Marie Antoinette?

Historian Delorme convinced the association to have the DNA testing done, which proved that the heart had belonged to someone who shared DNA patterns not only with Marie Antoinette-conserved locks of her hair were tested-but with living descendants of her dynasty including the Queen of Romania and her brother, Prince

What did Marie Antoinette spend money on?

She spent much money on refurbishing the Palace of Versailles, including the Petit Trianon – a small chateau within the grounds of Versailles. Although it had been built for the previous King’s mistress, the fantasy chateaux became associated with Marie – and how out of touch with reality the Monarchy was.

When did Marie Antoinette supposedly say let them eat cake?

The phrase was supposedly said by Marie Antoinette in 1789, during one of the famines in France during the reign of her husband, King Louis XVI. But it was not attributed to her until half a century later.

Did Marie Antoinette really tell French peasants to eat cake?

© Provided by Live Science Kirsten Dunst as Marie Antoinette in the 2006 movie. The quick answer to this question is a simple ‘no.’ Marie Antoinette, the last pre-revolutionary queen of France, did not say ‘Let them eat cake’ when confronted with news that Parisian peasants were so desperately poor they couldn’t afford bread.

What are some interesting facts about Marie Antoinette?

  • She was only 14 when she was married. Marie Antoinette was the youngest daughter of Maria Theresa,empress of Austria,and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I.
  • Marie Antoinette probably did NOT say,“Let them eat cake.”.
  • She loved acting.
  • Her hairstyles were three feet high.
  • Marie Antoinette was nicknamed “Madame Deficit.”.
  • Did Marie Antoinette like cake?

    Things weren’t always sugar and pastry dough for the queen. According to reports, Marie Antoinette did not actually like the extravagant foods that were served during public meals. She mostly liked her simple broth with vegetables, as well as boiled or roasted white meat (especially chicken or fowl), cooked vegetables, and simple soups.

    Did Marie-Antoinette Really Say “Let Them Eat Cake”?

    It is said that Marie-Antoinette, the queen of France during the French Revolution, said, ″Let them eat cake,″ which is the most famous quote associated with her.According to legend, that was the queen’s answer when she was informed that her starving peasant peasants were unable to get food.In part due to the fact that cake is more expensive than bread, the story is often used in order to illustrate the Queen’s obliviousness to the realities and daily lives of regular people during her reign.But, did she ever say those exact words in her life?Most likely not.

    Because, for one, the supposedly original French phrase that Marie-Antoinette is credited with saying—″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche″—doesn’t quite translate as ″Let them eat cake.″ It translates to ″Let them eat brioche,″ which is a good thing.Of course, the fact that brioche is a delicious bread prepared with eggs and butter, and is almost as decadent as cake, does not actually alter the meaning of the narrative in any way.However, the queen would not have been referring to the type of dessert that English people are accustomed to thinking about.More importantly, there is no historical proof that Marie-Antoinette ever uttered anything along the lines of ″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche″ or anything else along those lines.How did the quote come to be linked with Marie-Antoinette, and how did it come to be associated with her?

    As it happens, folklore historians have discovered tales that are identical to this one in various regions of the world, albeit the specifics vary from one version to the next.As an example, in a story collected in 16th-century Germany, a noblewoman wonders why the hungry poor don’t just eat Krosem (a sweet bread).Stories about monarchs or aristocracy who are unaware of their privileges are famous and ubiquitous folklore, mostly because they are amusing.Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher, is said to have been the first to use the precise phrase ″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche″ in literature, according to some sources.Jacques Rousseau recounts a version of the incident in Book VI of his Confessions (published about 1767), giving the phrase to ″a magnificent princess.″ The princess Rousseau had in mind at the time, Marie-Antoinette, despite the fact that she was still a child, is highly unlikely to have been the one in question.

    1. Since the revolutionaries were influenced by Rousseau’s works, it has been speculated that they may have taken this remark, fraudulently attributed it to Marie-Antoinette, and circulated it as propaganda in order to arouse opposition to the monarchy.
    2. However, this has not been proven.
    3. But current academics are suspicious of such assertions because there is no proof of the statement appearing in the revolutionary newspapers, pamphlets, or other materials that were issued by the revolutionaries.
    4. The first known source that connects the quotation to the queen was published more than 50 years after the French Revolution, which is rather remarkable given its age.
    5. An article in the magazine Les Guêpes published in 1843 said that a passage from a ″book dated 1760″ had been uncovered by French writer Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr, who asserted that it demonstrated that the myth concerning Marie-Antoinette had been spread falsely.
    6. Rumor?

    He was probably only repeating something he had already heard, just like so many of us.

    Let Them Eat Cake! The real story behind Marie Antoinette’s saying.

    Allow them to indulge in cake!Madame Marie Antoinette, Queen of France during the French Revolution, is said to have used this famous remark in an unfortunate manner.According to legend, the French people were famished at the time.Because of a low grain yield, rat infestations, and a slew of other problems, there was a severe scarcity of bread.When Marie Antoinette was informed of this development, she is believed to have responded, ″Let them eat cake.″ The fact that a cake is plainly a luxury item, and is far more expensive than bread, served only to demonstrate how out of touch she was with her constituents in this instance.

    Who Was Marie Antoinette?

    Marie Antoinette was born and reared in Austria, where she rose to the position of Archduchess and was the fifteenth child of rich parents.Early in her life, she was engaged to Louis Auguste (XVI) of France (Dauphin of France- the next in line to the throne), who was just thirteen at the time.With the marriage, the Austrian and French empires attempted to come to terms with one another.Both countries were becoming increasingly concerned about the rising might of Prussia and Great Britain, and so they decided to create an alliance.Despite a few vocal opponents to the union of Austrian and French monarchs, Marie Antoinette was largely well-liked by the general public.

    She began her life at the French court as a well-liked princess, who was admired for her kindness as well as her striking beauty.Antoinette was just 19 years old when Louis XV died and his son, Louis XVI, rose to the French monarchy in 1774.She was already queen of France while she was just twenty years old.

    Marie Antoinette’s Life as Queen of France

    Following her coronation as Queen of France, Marie Antoinette gradually consolidated her position of authority within the French court.Austria benefited enormously as a result of her position, and many people came to detest her as a result.For example, in terms of fashion, make-up, and French etiquette, she marked the end of a generation’s traditional ways of thinking (heavy makeup, clothing style), further infuriating many conservative members of the royal court.Her popularity among the broader public began to dwindle as well.Her second kid was born nine months after the return of a close male friend of hers from a long-distance relationship.

    People began to suspect that she was having an affair and that she was taking for granted her position as Queen of France as a result of this.That she was living in opulence when the rest of France was starving did not assist her cause either.Following her marriage to Louis XVI, she spent the most of her time at the luxurious palace of Versailles, which she had built for herself.It is said that she built a tiny farm in Versailles, where the animals were cleansed before she was permitted to ‘play with them’, according to legend.Despite the fact that many people in France were starving, the queen was said to be ‘playing dress-up’ away from the bustling streets of Paris.

    By 1789, unrest had spread among France’s general people, prompting affluent barons and lords to convene an emergency conference at Versailles.The Tennis Court Oath was a ceremony that took place in the Jeu de Paume and was known as the Tennis Court Oath.Marie Antoinette was imprisoned at the Conciergerie on the Île de la Cité in 1791, and you may still visit the jail today.She stayed in this location until her execution in 1793.

    So, did Marie Antoinette really say “Let them eat cake”?

    With a better understanding of the rising discontent among French citizens, as well as the source of their anger against the previously beloved Marie Antoinette, one issue remains: did she truly say, ″Let them eat cake″?For begin, the English translation of what was initially written in French is completely illegible.The phrase ″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche″ is supposed to have been used by Marie Antoinette herself.This translates to ″Let them eat brioche″ in the English language (a sweet French breakfast bread).Furthermore, there is no anecdotal or historical proof that Marie Antoinette ever said those words at any point in her life at the time of their occurrence.

    According to the most likely explanation, the story was fabricated in order to further diminish her reputation among the general public.It was not until 50 years after Marie Antoinette’s death that the term was first recorded in connection with her.When a 16th-century princess heard that her people were starving, the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau claimed that she said, ″Let them eat cake.″ This occurred before to Marie Antoinette’s reign.In actuality, the remark was most likely attributed to Marie Antoinette later on in order to account for her declining popularity during the French Revolution.Make sure to watch our selection of the top movies on Marie Antoinette if you want to understand even more about the life and times of the French Empress.

    Photo on the cover: In 1783, Marie Antoinette was shown in a portrait.Vigee leBrun’s Petit Trianon is an oil painting on canvas.(Source)

    The Story Behind ‘Let Them Eat Cake’, Marie-Antoinette’s Famous Quote

    07/30/21 Let them eat cake, Marie-immortal Antoinette’s words, are among the most renowned quotations in the history of the world.Is it possible that Marie-Antoinette said, ″Let them eat cake?″ What was it about Let Them Eat Cake that was offensive?She served as the wife of King Louis XVI of France and as the Queen of France throughout the French Revolution.When Marie-Antoinette was informed that her famished peasants were unable to eat bread, she is said to have sniffed and said, ‘Qu’ils mangent de la brioche,’ which translates as ‘Let Them Eat Cake’ in French, at some point around 1789.ALLOW THEM TO EAT CAKE MEANING: Because brioche is more expensive than bread, the tale has been used as an illustration of Marie-obliviousness Antoinette’s to the plight of regular people and their everyday lives in France, according to some historians.

    With such rude statement, the Queen cemented her reputation as a despised emblem of the decadent monarchy and encouraged the revolution that ultimately resulted in her (literally) losing her head in 1793.TIP: These are the greatest Parisian Cakes, having been created and developed in the city of light!

    Who Was Marie-Antoinette?

    Maria Antonia Josefa Johanna (1755 –1793) was an Austrian princess who was born and nurtured in the court of the Habsburg monarchy in Vienna.Louis Auguste, the future Dauphin of France, proposed to Marie-Antoinette when she was just 13 years old, and the two were married the following year.This planned marriage was an attempt to bring Austria and France back together after a period of conflict.Marie-Antoinette arrived in France in 1770, and she and her husband, the Dauphin, resided at the sumptuous Palace of Versailles with their children.The Dauphin succeeded to the throne as Louis XVI in 1774, after the death of King Louis XV of France.

    Marie-Antoinette was already the Queen of France when she was just 20 years old.It was Marie-tendency Antoinette’s to live lavishly, and she enjoyed throwing elaborate balls in the Palace and throwing grandiose parties in the Gardens of Versailles.When she needed to get away from the rigors of the French court, she journeyed discreetly to Paris or spent time ‘playing the peasant’ in the hamlet that had been erected just for her inside Versailles.More information on Marie-Antoinette may be found here.Marie Antoinette had little power despite the fact that she was the Queen of France at the time.

    She remained an Austrian who maintained close relations with her family in Vienna, and as a result, King Louis XVI never talked politics with her or sought her counsel on state matters.The Queen of France was unable to do much beyond hosting sumptuous parties, donating to charity organizations, and bearing successors to the French throne.At the start of her existence in the French court, Marie-Antoinette was well-liked by everybody, and she was admired for her beauty and charity, among other qualities.Over the years, there was rising dissatisfaction with the Queen’s extravagant lifestyle and wild parties, especially at a time when the whole city of Paris was starving.Prepare for your visit to Versailles.

    Did Marie-Antoinette Say Let Them Eat Cake?

    According to historians, the remark ″Let them eat cake″ attributed to Marie-Antoinette was a hoax spread by a rumor. In light of the facts, it appears that Marie-Antoinette did not say ″Let them eat cake,″ and that the famous remark was said by someone else long before Marie-Antoinette was crowned Queen of France. What we do know is as follows:

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    1. We Find Versions of Marie-Antoinette’s Quote Let Them Eat Cake Years Before

    Folklore scholars have discovered several variants of the same saying, some of which are slightly different, all around Europe.In the 16th century, there was a story of a noblewoman who was perplexed as to why the starving peasants weren’t eating Krosem, which was a type of delicious bread.In Rousseau’s book Confessions, we discover the remark ‘Qu’ils Mangent de la Brioche,’ which was stated by a ‘great princess,’ which is set in France.A year before Marie-birth Antoinette’s in 1767, Rousseau’s book was written when she was still a child and living in Austria, far away from the French court.Who said it was okay for them to eat cake?

    In this remark from Let Them Eat Cake, it is thought that Rousseau was referring to either Queen Maria-Thérèse, who was the wife of King Louis XIV and lived around 100 years before Marie-Antoinette became Queen of France, or to himself.

    2. Queen Marie Antoinette Actually Cared About Her People

    However, historians believe that, despite Marie-undoubtedly Antoinette’s opulent lifestyle, she was an intellectual lady who was sensitive to the plight of France’s destitute and starving inhabitants.Throughout her time at the French court, Queen Marie-Antoinette was generous in her donations to charity organizations.We can also see that she cares about her people in some of her letters to her family in Austria, albeit in her own unique way, in some of these letters.The Let Them Eat Cake speech by Marie-Antoinette, in any event, was used to highlight the disconnect between the nobility in France and the situation of the country.

    Trying to Kill the Rumors

    Consequently, it appears that the Marie-Antoinette statement Let Them Eat Cake was subsequently linked to her declining popularity, which is consistent with this theory.Marie-Antoinette was in such trouble!As was the case with the Affair of the Diamond Necklace, her image was irrevocably ruined as a result of a statement from someone else’s book.The year 1843 marked the first time the quote was associated with the ill-fated Queen in print.When a French writer called Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr discovered the quotation ″Let Them Eat Cake″ in a book from 1760, when Marie-Antoinette was just five years old, he denounced it to the authorities.

    Karr believed that by doing so, the myth that she was the inspiration for the famous remark would be put to rest once and for all, but it did not succeed.More information may be found by clicking here.Stories from the City of Lights Return to the Home Page

    Did Marie-Antoinette really say “Let them eat cake”?

    • It’s one of the most famous phrases in the history of the human race.
    • ″Let them eat cake,″ Marie-Antoinette (the future wife of France’s King Louis XVI) allegedly sniffed when informed that her French citizens were without bread at some point around 1789.
    • ″Let them eat cake,″ she is reported to have said.

    Those words cemented the queen’s ignominious status as a despised emblem of the decadent monarchy, and they encouraged the revolt that would ultimately lead to her (literally) losing her head many years later.Is it possible that Marie-Antoinette actually said those venomous words?According to historians, this is not the case.Lady Antonia Fraser, author of a biography of the French queen, believes that the quote would have been highly uncharacteristic of Marie-Antoinette, who she believes was an intelligent woman who donated generously to charitable causes and, despite her undeniably lavish lifestyle, displayed sensitivity towards the poor population of France.

    ″The quote would have been highly uncharacteristic of Marie-Antoinette,″ she says.What’s even more compelling, though, is the fact that the ″Let them eat cake″ narrative had been circulating for years before to 1789, when the event occurred.Marie-Thérèse, the Spanish princess who married King Louis XIV in 1660, was the subject of a story that was initially recounted in a somewhat different form.″La croûte de pâté″ (the crust of the pâté) is reported to have been one of her recommendations to the French people.

    1. A number of additional 18th-century royals, including two aunts of Louis XVI, were implicated in the comment throughout the course of the next century.
    2. One of the most famous versions of the pâté story is that told by the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his ″Confessions″ in 1766, in which he attributes the words to ″a magnificent princess″ (most likely Marie-Thérèse).
    3. Those immortal words were almost definitely not said by Marie-Antoinette, who was just 10 years old at the time Rousseau was penning them—three years away from marrying the French prince and eight years away from becoming the country’s first woman to reign as monarch.

    The Quote Marie Antoinette Never Said

    ″Allow them to have cake!″ Here’s a famous example of a comment that was incorrectly credited and ended up costing someone her life. To put it another way, rather literally. According to popular legend, this quote from Marie Antoinette, the queen of France’s King Louis XVI, said ″Let them eat cake.″ However, it was at this point that the French were mistaken.

    What Made Marie Antoinette So Disliked by the People of France?

    • It’s true that she lived a lavish lifestyle..
    • Marie Antoinette was a compulsive spendthrift, delighting in extravagant spending even during a period when the country was under an extreme financial crisis.
    • Hairdresser Léonard Autié came up with unique styles that the queen admired, and she praised him for his work.

    She invested a lot in the construction of a little village, dubbed Petit Trianon, that was lush with lakes, gardens, and watermills, which she named after herself.This occurred at a time when France was suffering from a severe food crisis, poverty, and depressive conditions.

    Marie Antoinette: A Daughter Shunned, A Wife Unloved, A Queen Scorned, A Mother Misunderstood

    • Marie Antoinette was a teenager when she became queen.
    • She had tied the knot with the Dauphin when she was just fifteen years old.
    • She was used as a pawn in a political scheme that included her Austrian parents, who were of royal birth, as well as the royal family of France.

    When she arrived in France, she found herself surrounded by adversaries who were attempting to steal the power of the ruling class.In addition, the conditions were ideal for the French Revolution.Increasingly vocal dissatisfaction among the poorer strata of society was taking root and spreading.Marie Antoinette’s extravagant spending did not improve the situation either.

    Because of the excesses of the royal family and those from the upper middle class, France’s impoverished were becoming more irritable.These individuals were on the lookout for any way to pin their misfortune on the King and Queen of England.Marie Antoinette was tried for treason in 1793 and publicly beheaded as a result of her conviction.Despite the fact that she had her flaws, making an inappropriate comment was most definitely not one of them.

    How Rumors Tainted the Young Queen’s Image

    • As part of the French Revolution, rumors were spread to discredit the Queen and provide justification for her deposition as a traitor.
    • One of the myths that circulated at the time was that when the Queen inquired as to why people were rioting in the city, her page replied that there was no bread available.
    • As a result, the Queen is believed to have responded, ″Let them have cake.″ ″If they don’t have any more bread, they’ll have to make do with brioche!″ she said in French.

    According to another popular belief, on her way to be executed, the ″insensitive″ queen truly spoke the words that have tarnished her reputation even more severely.″How probable is it that a Queen, who is humiliated and on her way to the guillotine, would say anything so insulting that it might incite the mob’s wrath against her?″ I couldn’t help but wonder when I read this incident of history.What kind of sense does that make?’ However, the poorly phrased comment remained associated with Marie Antoinette’s image for more than 200 years.It wasn’t until 1823, when the memoirs of Comte de Provence were published, that the whole truth came to the surface.

    When it came to his sister-in-law, the Comte de Provence was not exactly lavish in his praise; yet, it was impossible for him to avoid mentioning that, when eating ″pate en croûte,″ he was reminded of his own ancestress, the Queen Marie-Thérèse.

    Who Actually Said the Words, ″Let Them Eat Cake?″

    • In 1765, French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau published a work titled Confessions, which was divided into six parts.
    • A princess from his time stated the following in this book: ″Finally, I recall the pis-aller of a great princesse who was asked why the country people didn’t have enough bread and she said, ″Because they eat brioche,″ in this book.
    • To put it another way, I was reminded of a famous princess who, when she was informed that the peasants were without food, answered with the phrase ″Let them eat brioche.″ In 1765, Marie Antoinette was just nine years old, and she had not yet met the future King of France, let alone married him, when this novel was published, making it unthinkable that she had truly spoken those words.

    Marie Antoinette arrived at Versailles somewhat later, in 1770, and was crowned queen the following year, in 1774.

    The Real Marie Antoinette: A Sensitive Queen and Loving Mother 

    • So, how did Marie Antoinette end up being the unfortunate one that received negative press?
    • According to historical records, the aristocracy was already feeling the heat from the restless peasantry and working class at the time of the revolution in France.
    • Their extravagant extravagances, complete indifference, and complete contempt for public uproar were creating a whirlpool of spiteful political activity.

    While the country was suffering from severe poverty, bread became a national obsession.During the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette and her King husband Louis XVI were made the scapegoats for the increasing tide of unrest.According to Lady Antonia Fraser, Marie Antoinette was sensitive to the plight of the general populace and frequently gave to a variety of philanthropic organisations during her reign.She was particularly sensitive to the situation of the impoverished, and when she learned of their struggle, she was sometimes moved to tears by it.

    However, despite her royal status, she either lacked the motivation to correct the issue or lacked the political skills necessary to defend the monarchy.During the first several years of her marriage, Marie Antoinette was unable to have children, and this was seen as evidence of the queen’s promiscuous lifestyle.Rumors spread about her apparent relationship with Axel Fersen, a Spanish count who was appearing in court.As Marie Antoinette was suspected of involvement in a crime that would eventually be known as the ″diamond necklace incident,″ rumors flew thick and fast behind the magnificent walls of the Versailles castle.

    1. The claim that Marie Antoinette had an incestuous connection with her own son, on the other hand, was possibly the most defamatory of them.
    2. The queen’s mother’s heart may have been crushed, but Marie Antoinette remained a stern, dignified queen who bore the brunt of the scandal.
    3. When the Tribunal asked her to react to the claim that she had sexual intercourse with her son throughout the course of her trial, she said, ″If I have not replied, it is because Nature herself refuses to answer such a charge leveled against a mother.″ Afterward, she addressed her trial’s audience, who had come to see the proceedings.
    4. She implored them: ″I appeal to all moms here present – is it true?″ According to legend, when she said these words in court, the women in the audience were captivated by her sincere appeal.
    5. However, the Tribunal, concerned that she would elicit popular sympathy, moved the legal processes up in order to sentence her to death as soon as possible.
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    Known as the ″Reign of Terror,″ this era in history is the darkest moment in history, and it is the period that finally led to the collapse of Robespierre, the principal perpetrator of royal atrocities, and the end of the French Revolution.

    How the Queen Was Guillotined for a Crime She Never Committed

    • Having a tainted reputation is never beneficial, especially in difficult economic times.
    • The enraged revolutionaries of the French Revolution were on the lookout for a chance to bring the aristocracy to heel.
    • Wild rumors were propagated through illicit press, fueled by a boiling fanaticism and a passion for blood, portraying Marie Antoinette as a barbarian, impudent, and shamelessly haughty woman.

    The Tribunal proclaimed the queen a ″scourge and blood-sucker of the French,″ and she was executed.She was guillotined to death on the spot and condemned to death.The trial was considered to be fair and just by the violent mob, which was out for revenge.Marie Antoinette’s hair, which was well-known across France for its exquisite poufs, was cut to add to her humiliation, and she was then led to the guillotine.

    During her approach to the guillotine, she unintentionally trod on the toe of the guillotine by mistake.Which of these statements did this shallow, selfish, and insensitive queen make to the executioner do you think?″Please accept my apologies, monsieur,″ she added.″I haven’t spoken anything about it.″ That translates to ″Please accept my apologies, sir; I didn’t mean to do it.″ The sad beheading of a queen who had been unjustly by her people is a narrative that will live on in the annals of history as a permanent stain on the fabric of humanity.

    1. She was sentenced to a punishment that was far more severe than her offence.
    2. Marie Antoinette was doomed from the start since she was the Austrian bride of a French monarch.
    3. She was buried in an unmarked grave, forgotten by a world engulfed in horrible hatred for the woman who died.
    4. More quotations from Marie Antoinette that she actually said may be found below.
    5. These quotations convey the majesty of a queen, the kindness of a mother, and the pain of a woman who has been wrongfully treated.

    1.″I was a queen, and you took away my crown; I was a wife, and you murdered my husband; I was a mother, and you took my children away from me.″ I have just my blood left: take it, but do not let me suffer for too long.″ The legendary comments of Marie Antoinette during the trial, when she was asked by the Tribunal whether she had anything to say regarding the accusations leveled against her.″Have the courage!

    Consider that I have demonstrated it for years; do you believe that I would lose it at the moment when my sufferings will come to an end?″ During her transportation to the guillotine on October 16, 1793, a priest urged Marie Antoinette to maintain her composure as she approached the guillotine.These were the remarks she hurled at the priest, revealing the stoic serenity of a royal woman under the surface.3.″There is no one who knows my afflictions, nor the horror that fills my breast, who does not know the heart of a mother,″ says the author.

    In 1789, following the death of her beloved son Louis Joseph from illness, a distraught Marie Antoinette murmured these words to console herself.

    Why Did Marie Antoinette Say Eat Cake?

    It is said that Marie-Antoinette, the queen of France during the French Revolution, said, ″Let them eat cake,″ which is the most famous remark associated with her. According to legend, that was the queen’s answer when she was informed that her starving peasant peasants were unable to get food.

    What does the phrase Let Them Eat Cake mean?

    A remark that demonstrates insensitivity to or incomprehension of the realities of life experienced by those who are unlucky.

    Did Marie Antoinette Let them eat cake?

    Answering this question in a straightforward manner is ″no.″ When Marie Antoinette, the last pre-revolutionary queen of France, learned that Parisian peasants were so terribly destitute that they couldn’t purchase bread, she did not respond with the phrase ″Let them eat cake.″

    What was Marie Antoinette’s cake called?

    She served as the wife of King Louis XVI of France and as the Queen of France throughout the French Revolution. When Marie-Antoinette was informed that her famished peasants were unable to eat bread, she is said to have sniffed and said, ‘Qu’ils mangent de la brioche,’ which translates as ‘Let Them Eat Cake’ in French, at some point around 1789.

    What Marie-Antoinette really said?

    ″Let them eat cake″ is a famous saying ascribed to Marie Antoinette, the Queen of France during the French Revolution, and it has become synonymous with the term. … They are reported to have stated ″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche″ (Let them eat Brioche), which simply translates as ″Let them eat Brioche.″

    What does cake mean in slang?

    Making cake by the sea is a slang term for having sex on the beach. It is derived from the title of the band’s debut single, ″Cake by the Ocean,″ which was released in 2015.

    What was Marie Antoinette favorite dessert?

    If it wasn’t already clear, the Queen was a sucker for sweets – and not only for breakfast, when she was known to eat sugary pastries in the morning. Her passion with sweets, such as petit fours, candied fruits, and wafers, according to Wheeler, made her well-known among her friends.

    Is Marie Antoinette innocent?

    Despite the fact that Marie Antoinette was completely innocent of any wrongdoing, she was considered guilty in the eyes of the public. At 1786, Marie Antoinette began construction of the Hameau de la Reine, an expensive retreat near the Petit Trianon in Versailles, refusing to allow public criticism to influence her decisions.

    Why don’t they eat brioche?

    • ″Let them eat cake,″ Marie-Antoinette (the future wife of France’s King Louis XVI) allegedly sniffed when informed that her French citizens were without bread at some point around 1789.
    • ″Let them eat cake,″ she is reported to have said.
    • With that heartless statement, the queen was transformed into a despised emblem of the corrupt monarchy, and the revolution that followed was spurred by her words.

    Why was Marie Antoinette hated?

    With the French libelles accusing her of being extravagant and promiscuous, as well as having sympathy for France’s perceived enemies—particularly her home Austria—and her children of being illegitimate, she grew more unpopular with the French people.

    Why did Marie Antoinette lose her head?

    This is not a Cinderella story in the traditional sense. In 1793, on the morning of her death on the 16th of October, the French queen lost her shoe while ascending the guillotine steps. This is the shoe she was wearing at the time. She first misplaced her shoe, and then she misplaced her mind.

    What started the French Revolution?

    King Louis XVI, who was assassinated at the guillotine as his wife Marie Antoinette, was the catalyst for the revolution, which was driven by widespread dissatisfaction with the French monarchy and the disastrous economic policies of the monarchy.

    What was the guillotine’s nickname?

    EVER since the first blade was driven into the wood in 1792, the French guillotine has engendered terror and earned ominous moniker such as ″the widow,″ ″the barber,″ and ″the national razor.″

    Where is Marie Antoinette’s head?

    A half-mile north, the remains of Marie Antoinette were transported to a cemetery behind the Church of Medeleine, but the gravediggers were on a lunch break at the time of her funeral. There was enough time for Marie Grosholtz, who would eventually become known as Madame Tussaud, to create a wax replica of her face before she was interred in an unmarked tomb.

    Who was Marie Antoinette’s husband?

    Marie-Antoinette was the youngest daughter of Holy Roman emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, and she was married to Louis XVI during the reign of the Holy Roman emperor.

    What does mean from a guy?

    @isabelasfurlan As the name implies, it means ″cake,″ which may be used as slang to refer to ″butt/asse.″ It can also apply to someone who has overdone their cosmetics, who is said to be ‘caked.″ See if you can find a translation.

    Did Marie Antoinette really say “let them eat cake”?

    • Known for her extravagant and affluent lifestyle, Marie Antoinette had such little care for the peasants of her kingdom that when she found that they were without bread, she simply proclaimed ″let them eat cake″ instead — but did she really?
    • Find out who said the term and what it meant by reading this article.
    • Published on March 9, 2021 at 9:00 a.m.

    Pacific Standard Time It is possible that the French monarch Marie Antoinette used the words ″let them eat cake,″ but she did it in a dreadfully unoriginal manner.The origins of this attack on privilege are unclear, although it existed long before the French Revolution and was only tied to the queen 50 years after she had lost her head in a duel.More information may be found here.Marie Antoinette’s final days were spent in exile in France.

    • The phrase was ″an old chestnut,″ according to historian Nancy Barker, and it was used to criticize Bourbon females, especially Louis XV’s daughters.
    • Rousseau, the French philosopher, published a very similar narrative about a ″great princess″ five years before Marie Antoinette ever arrived in France, and it has since become famous.
    • It was alleged that a nasty politician said, ″let them eat hay,″ however there is no contemporaneous proof that revolutionaries made this well-known allegation against Marie Antoinette; the first known source for this long-standing fiction is an 1843 French newspaper.

    Emily Brand, a historian and novelist, provided the answer as one of our Q&A experts.According to BBC History Revealed magazine, this piece was adapted.

    The Real Story Behind Let Them Eat Cake!

    • ″Let them eat cake″ is a famous saying ascribed to Marie Antoinette, the Queen of France during the French Revolution, and it has become synonymous with the term.
    • At some time during the year 1789, after being informed that the French people was suffering from a bread scarcity as a result of a bad crop harvest and rat infestation, and as a result was starving, Marie Antoinette responded by saying, ″let them eat cake!″ Using cake, which was plainly a more costly item than bread, further demonstrated how out of touch she was with her audience.
    • With this cruel statement, the Queen was transformed into a despised icon of the monarchy, which spurred the French Revolution and finally resulted in her (figuratively) losing her head a few years afterward.

    The issue remains, however, as to whether or not the much-loved French king genuinely said those words in that moment.For starters, the literal translation of the phrase from French to English is incorrect in many instances.They are reported to have stated ″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche″ (Let them eat Brioche), which simply translates as ″Let them eat Brioche.″ However, while Brioche is a rich, buttery, and sweet French breakfast bread that is far more costly than a simple Baguette, it is not the multi-layered gateaux that one might expect.Even yet, it doesn’t take away from the reality that it demonstrated how haughty and out of touch the French Queen was with her followers.

    The question now is whether Marie Antoinette genuinely spoke such words or if they were made up by someone else.She did not, however, according to historical records!Accordin to Lady Antonia Fraser, who has written a history of Marie-Antoinette, the phrase would have been exceedingly unusual of the French queen.She claims that Marie Antoinette was an intelligent lady who, despite her extravagant lifestyle, was sensitive to the needs of those around her.

    1. Apart from that, this quotation has been in circulation since before 1789, and it was first stated in a slightly different form about Marie-Thérèse, the Spanish princess who married King Louis XIV in 1660, according to a separate source.
    2. She is believed to have stated that ″la croûte de pâté″ (or the crust of the pâté) is something that the French people eat.
    3. Originally published in 1766, when Marie Antoinette was just ten years old, philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s ″Confessions″ provided the inspiration for this novel.
    4. As a result, whomever spoke such statements could not possibly have been Marie Antoinette.

    Did Marie Antoinette really say ‘Let them eat cake’?

    1. Home
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    • In the 2006 film ″Marie Antoinette,″ which starred Kirsten Dunst, there was never a lack of delicious desserts.
    • Moviestore Collection Ltd.
    • / Alamy Stock Photo provided the image used in this post.) Were the fabled words ″let them eat cake″ by Marie Antoinette actually spoken by her?

    Answering this question in a straightforward manner is ″no.″ When Marie Antoinette, the last pre-revolutionary queen of France, learned that Parisian peasants were so terribly destitute that they couldn’t purchase bread, she did not respond with the phrase ″Let them eat cake.″ Perhaps a more pertinent issue is: Why do we believe she said what she did?As a point of reference, the quote has been significantly exaggerated in its translation from French to English for the sake of clarity.Originally, it was said that Marie Antoinette stated, ″Qu’ils mangent de la brioche,″ which translates as ″Let them eat brioche.″ While this sweetened bread is more costly than a typical baguette, it isn’t exactly the icing-strewn, multi-tiered gateau that you would have imagined the queen to have in mind when she created it.Although this bombastic translation misses the message, at least from a propagandist perspective, it still implies that the French queen was haughty and out of touch with the common people.

    Things will never improve for the common French citizen as long as cruel elites like these are in command of affairs.Long live the revolution!Related: What was the total number of French revolutions?However, the ″brioche″ phrase is dubious as well because there is no trustworthy proof that the queen actually stated it in the first place.

    1. According to Denise Maior-Barron, an adjunct professor at Claremont Graduate University in California whose study studies contemporaneous representations of Marie Antoinette’s character, ″Marie Antoinette never spoke these remarks or anything else along these lines.″ ″Louis, on the other hand, is a character that appears in all of the films that include Marie Antoinette, but who is presented as a timid and pitiful consort.
    2. Another egregious distortion, to be sure.″ There has never been a lack of revolutions in France.
    3. The first, which took place in 1789, had a disastrous outcome for Marie Antoinette and her husband, Louis XVI.
    4. A succession of monarchs and republics were established during the next century, with each side engaging in an extensive propaganda campaign in addition to violent clashes with the other side.
    5. When one of these later revolutions occurred, it was a long time after Marie Antoinette’s execution that the misquote first started to be said.
    See also:  How To Make Lemon Cake Filling?

    ″It was not during the 18th century that it came to be misattributed to Marie Antoinette, but rather during the Third French Republic beginning in 1870, when a meticulous program of rebuilding the historical past was carried out,″ Maior-Barron said to Live Science.When Napoléon III was deposed in 1870 following a defeat in a war against Prussia, the republicans were on a long-running effort to discredit Marie Antoinette’s legacy and reputation, which they were successful in doing.According to Maior-Barron, ″the masterminds of the French Revolution undermined the French monarchy by repeatedly targeting, and finally deposing of, its most essential symbols: the king and queen of France.″ This is why the cliched expression ″Let them eat cake″ continues to be used.

    This century-long campaign to destroy Marie Antoinette’s image was not only about safeguarding the republican cause; it was also laced with sexism, given that her reputation appears to have suffered a considerably greater hammering than that of her husband, who was in real command of France.In the words of Robert Gildea, a professor of modern history at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, ″the French Revolution attempted to remove women from political authority.″ However, while women were far from being free during the time of Louis XVI’s reign as monarch, it was theoretically feasible for the wives and mistresses of monarchs and other significant officials to assume positions of authority, albeit in an unofficial capacity.The revolutionaries, on the other hand, attempted to further exclude women from the national discussion.Marie Antoinette was not the first woman to lose her head during France’s first transition from monarchy to republican government.

    As Gildea explained to Live Science, ″Olympe de Gouges, who penned the ‘Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen,’ was also executed by guillotine.″ Related: The letter ‘S,’ in medieval manuscripts, seems to be written like a ″F.″ Why is this so?Gildea explains that during the period leading up to the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette was accused of exercising an excessive amount of control over her husband.This makes it understandable why propagandists would be encouraged to participate in a character assassination of Marie Antoinette, and the rumor mill surrounding her name undoubtedly flourished during the first revolution, while she was still alive.The accusation against her was that she had ″both male and female lovers,″ as well as a ″incestuous connection″ with her son, according to Gildea.In truth, the remark about ″brioche″ was not only not unique, but it also had a long history of being used against noble women.Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher and writer whose work had an impact on the French Revolution, is said to have been the first to use the term in 1767, according to some sources.

    • ″The phrase ‘Let them eat brioche’ first appeared in one of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s novels, in which he attributed the phrase to one of his fictitious characters who belonged to the 18th-century French aristocracy,″ Maior-Barron explained.
    • ″Let them eat brioche″ is an abbreviation for ″let them eat brioche.″ In the case of Marie Antoinette, however, the queen’s slanderers may have been motivated by more than simply misogyny; she also posed a very serious threat to the republicans, which may have prompted their attacks on her.
    • Marie Antoinette was born into the strong Habsburg Austrian royal family, which she married into before she became Queen of France.
    • When the violent insurrections against the French monarchy gained momentum, she wrote to her brothers back in England in an attempt to persuade them to invade France and save the kingdom from destruction.
    • In the event that these forces did attack France, ″Marie Antoinette was perceived as a traitor,″ Gildea explained.

    Ultimately, the Habsburgs were unsuccessful in their efforts to halt the revolution, Marie Antoinette was beheaded, and the victorious monarchs were allowed to write the history books.The original version of this article appeared on Live Science.Benjamin is a science writer with almost a decade of experience who works as a freelancer in Sydney, Australia.His work has appeared in a variety of publications, including Live Science, Scientific American, Discover Magazine, the Associated Press, USA Today, Wired, Engadget, and Chemical & Engineering News.His undergraduate degree in biology was earned at the Imperial College in London.He went on to earn his master’s degree in science journalism at New York University, where he also earned an advanced certificate in science, health, and environmental reporting.

    The life and death of Marie Antoinette: everything you need to know about the last queen of France

    What was it that drove Marie Antoinette from being the nation’s sweetheart to becoming a public enemy? We’ll tell you all you need to know about her life and death…

    Marie Antoinette: in profile

    • The date of birth was November 2, 1755, at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria.
    • Place de la Concorde (formerly known as Place de la Revolution) in Paris, France, on October 16, 1793.
    • Affectionately known for: Being toppled by French revolutionaries and publicly hanging once the monarchy was abolished.

    Marie was the 15th child of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Empress Maria Theresa, and the youngest of their seven children.During their marriage, the couple produced 16 children, with 10 of them living to maturity.On April 19, 1770, Marie married Louis-Auguste, Duke of Berry and Dauphin of France, the heir to the French throne, in a proxy wedding (a wedding that takes place without the presence of at least one of the two persons) in Paris, where she was only 14 years old.They had four children together: Marie Thérèse Charlotte, Louis Joseph, Louis Charles, and Sophie Hélène Béatrice.

    Marie Thérèse Charlotte was the oldest of the four children.

    Marie Antoinette’s early life

    • Marie Antoinette was born in 1755 as the Archduchess of Austria, and she spent her formative years in Vienna’s Schönbrunn Palace and Hofburg Palace.
    • She was the 15th child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
    • She was baptized ‘Maria Antonia’ and was affectionately called as ‘Antoine’ by her family.

    It was in the vibrant court of Vienna that she and her siblings spent their formative years as their mother plotted their futures, intent on using her big family to the nation’s benefit.Typical of a royal woman’s education at the period, Marie received instruction in singing, dancing, and musical instrument playing among other things.During her childhood, Marie Carolina shared a governess with her older sister, Maria Carolina, and the two sisters remained close throughout Marie’s adulthood.

    The marriage of Marie Antoinette to the future King Louis XVI

    • The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1756 between France and Austria.
    • After the commencement of the Seven Years’ War (1754–63), which was a series of wars between the major powers of Europe over British and French possessions in the United States, this pact vowed that both countries would assist one another.
    • After much deliberation, King Louis XV of France and Marie’s mother came to the conclusion that a marital alliance would be necessary to ensure the pact between the French and the Austrians.

    As a result, on April 19, 1770, the 14-year-old Marie was legally married to Louis XV’s heir, his eldest grandson Louis-Auguste, in a proxy marriage.In May 1770, after meeting for the first time with her future husband on the 14th, an official wedding ceremony was held at the Palace of Versailles on the 16th of same month.When Marie made her first public appearance as a member of the French royal family in June 1770, an estimated 50,000 people flocked to the streets of Paris in anticipation.Marie was the first female member of the French royal family.

    Because the audience was so eager to view the adolescent, at least 30 people were killed as a result of the frantic rush to get a glimpse of him or her.During this public event, several of Marie’s contemporaries were taken by her beauty and complimented her on it.According to historian Emily Brand, ″While there were some murmurs regarding her Austrian ancestry, her future appeared to be bright.″ She established the court she would build over the following 20 years with a whirlwind of celebrations at Versailles.The fact that the pair would not consummate their marriage until seven years after their wedding became a popular topic of conversation and derision became a popular topic of discussion.

    1. The splendor of French royal life soon drew Marie into its fold, and she began attending costly balls and partaking in gambling.
    2. Her spouse, on the other hand, preferred to stay out of the spotlight.
    3. Seven years later, the pair would finally tie the knot — a fact that became a popular topic of conversation and mockery both in court and among the general public.
    4. Following a bout with smallpox, King Louis XV passed away on May 10, 1774.
    5. Marie, who had not yet reached the age of 19 when her husband ascended to the throne as King Louis XVI, became the first female monarch of France.

    Despite the fact that Marie’s future appeared to be safe at this time, the rest of the country was trembling with turmoil.It wasn’t long after her husband’s coronation in June 1775 that areas of the kingdom were engulfed in rioting over the price of bread, according to author Emily Brand.″Years of high taxes and poor economic policies had resulted in a population that was starving.″

    Did Marie Antoinette have an affair?

    Answered by Emily Brand
    • As a very sociable creature, the queen made open and long-lasting ties to female favorites at court, and this continued throughout her reign.
    • She had a number of important women in waiting, but the Princesse de Lamballe and the Duchesse de Polignac were perhaps the most important.
    • While her friendships with men were later tarnished by accusations of sexual depravity, the rumours surrounding her relationship with a handsome Swedish count, Axel von Fersen, who was admitted into her close circle during the summer of her first pregnancy and left the country in a cloud of gossip in 1780, are more convincing.

    Marie Antoinette’s children

    • The first three years of Marie’s reign as queen were marked by the absence of children.
    • Maria Theresa was very aware of her daughter’s precarious situation, and she inundated her with instructions on how to influence others.
    • She even requested confidential briefings on her daughter’s behavior from the ambassador in Paris.

    By 1777, Marie’s brother Joseph, who was then the Holy Roman Emperor, had traveled to Versailles to try to figure out why the couple was failing to fulfill their obligation to conceive a family.In Brand’s words, ″his conclusion was straightforward: lack of experience, coupled with an apparent shared indifference.″ He did have an effect, however, since the queen became pregnant shortly after his arrival.Marie gave birth to her first child, Marie Thérèse Charlotte, in December 1778.She was Marie’s first child.

    A son, Louis-Joseph, was born in October 1781, and two more children, Louis Charles and Sophie Hélène Béatrice, were born in 1785 and 1786, respectively.According to Emily Brand, ″It was a great comfort to everyone when the queen gave birth to her first son, Louis-Joseph – but regrettably, her mother did not live to see it.″ An 18th-century painting of Marie Antoinette of France and two of her children strolling around the grounds of Trianon Palace, painted in 1785.Adolf Ulrich Wertmuller created this painting.Stockholm, Sweden’s National Museum is a must-see.

    1. Featured image courtesy of Leemage/Corbis via Getty Images

    Why did the French dislike Marie Antoinette?

    • During the 1780s, France endured bad harvests, which resulted in an increase in the price of grain as a result.
    • In addition to the government, the government was experiencing significant financial difficulties, and Marie’s extravagant lifestyle at the court was soon under fire.
    • A large number of pamphlets and satires were published around the kingdom, reflecting the public’s displeasure with the queen’s lavish spending habits.

    Meanwhile, deadly rumors spread that Marie was having an affair with Hans Axel von Fersen, a Swedish count who was a close colleague of Marie’s at the time.There have been some questions raised about the paternity of Marie’s children.When Marie began construction of a quiet agricultural town on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles in 1783, she raised the bar on her extravagant spending even further.Le Hameau de la Reine (also known as ‘The Queen’s Hamlet’) was built to provide a respite from the bustling court of Versailles for the queen and her closest associates.

    It was equipped with a farmhouse, cottages, a mill, and farm animals.During the day, Marie and her ladies-in-waiting would dress up as shepherdesses and act as if they were peasants, strolling around the farm and milking the cows and sheep.Marie even hired slaves to help with the upkeep of the settlement and the maintenance of the animals.Although this retreat appeared to be pleasant, members of the court and general public claimed that Marie was making fun of French peasants by dressing up as shepherdesses and behaving as if she was in financial distress.

    What was the Affair of the Diamond Necklace?

    Answered by Emily Brand
    • Marie Antoinette had long been the subject of rumors, but in a society characterized by a burgeoning print culture, her alleged misdeeds became inescapably public – and disastrously so in

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