How To Pipe A Cake?

Hold piping bag at a 90 degree angle slightly above cake

How to use a piping bag for a cake?

Pipe a small ring overlapping first. Stop the pressure When the bag is in the centre of the swirl, push the bag down and pull quickly to finish. For a flower design: using a cake nozzle and icing on top of the cake. So, these were the basic piping techniques.

What are some simple cake piping techniques?

From classic cupcake swirls to piping buttercream flowers and borders, these simple cake piping techniques are sure to have you enticed to ice! Master the classic cupcake swirl using a 1M decorating tip. Perfect for topping cupcakes, pies, cakes and more, this piping technique is easy to do with buttercream or stabilized whipped cream frosting.

How do you pipe on a cake with icing?

Always pipe onto firmly set icing so that you can scrape off any errors easily. If you are writing text onto your cake, use a toothpick to mark out the letters as a guide before you pipe. You may find that you need runnier icing for fluid lines and letters.

Do you need to bother with piping when decorating cakes?

But piping does not need to bother you. Whether you are new to decorating cakes or simply want to brush up on your piping skills, these basic piping techniques you need to get started. From classic cupcake swirls to piping buttercup flowers and borders, these simple cake piping techniques are sure to help you, read on:

What is the purpose of piping?

Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid.

What to use instead of frosting to practice piping?

I suggest you use royal icing instead of butter icing. Basically made from icing sugar (powder sugar) and egg white, it will cost very little and can still be coloured if necessary. Once you have tried out all the simple styles you scrape it off the board or work surface, mix it well and practice again.

Should I refrigerate icing before piping?

It doesn’t matter which style of frosting you plan to make—as long as you make it right before you’re ready to frost. Frosting is made from majority butter and sugar, so leaving it for a long period of time at room temperature will make it too soft and refrigerating it will make the butter seize.

Do you chill frosting before piping?

Attempting to spread frosting onto warm cake layers is a recipe for sloppy disaster. Chill your cake layers for at least 2 hours, or better, overnight. If you’ve made your frosting ahead, make sure it’s at room temperature before you start.

Can you pipe buttercream?

Drop a few drops of food coloring into the buttercream icing, stir with a spoon until mixed through evenly. Insert a nozzle into the end of a piping bag. Roll down the top of the plastic bag until approximately half way. Add the buttercream icing with a spoon into the piping bag, and push into the nozzle area.

Can I pipe buttercream onto cake?

Use buttercream to pipe icing swirls on cupcakes, retro rosettes on cakes and to give cakes a ‘frosting’. To make buttercream, sieve the icing sugar into slightly softened butter (for quantities, see our Vanilla cake recipe) and beat or whisk to combine.

Can you pipe on buttercream cake?

Buttercream and royal icing are the most common icings used for cake decorating, but I’m a firm believer in ‘if you can pipe it, you can decorate with it.’ So as long as whatever icing, ganache, whipped cream etc.

How to pipe ruffles on a cake?

  • Buttercream Piping,Part 1: Piping Buttercream Roses
  • Buttercream Piping,Part 2: Piping A Buttercream Petal Cake
  • Vintage Floral Buttercream Cake Tutorial
  • Buttercream Flowers&Floral Wreath Cakes
  • Cupcake Bouquets&Piped Buttercream Flower Tutorials
  • Floral Buttercream Hatbox Cake Tutorial by Valeri Valeriano&Christina Ong
  • How to pipe a rosette on a cupcake?

    How To Pipe a Rosette on a Cupcake. By Sylvia Collins May 13, 2016. Xanthe Milton teaches you to pipe rosettes on cupcakes. From choosing the perfect piping tip to instructions on bag pressure, she’ll show you how easy it is to make stunning cupcakes. Xanthe Milton teaches you how to create a rose effect when icing cupcakes. YouTube. Ebury Reads.

    How to pipe rosettes on a cake?

  • Stack and frost the cake layers on a greaseproof cake board or plate.
  • Cover each cake layer with an even layer of purple buttercream as you assemble the cake.
  • Spread a thin coat of frosting around the the cake using the overhanging frosting to fully cover the cake layers.
  • Basic Cake Piping Techniques

    1. Cake piping methods are visually spectacular, tremendously complicated, imaginative, and…
    2. challenging to master.
    3. However, plumbing does not have to be a source of concern.

    You may use these basic piping methods to get started, whether you are new to cake decorating or simply want to brush up on your existing talents.These basic cake piping methods will guide you through anything from traditional cupcake swirls to creating buttercup flowers and borders.Continue reading to learn more:

    Planning & Cake Design

    1. When it comes to cake piping, preparation is essential, and planning is even more crucial than practicing.
    2. It is necessary to create a precise blueprint of how you want your cake to look when it is done before you begin working on it.
    3. There are several suggestions available on the internet.

    Once you’ve gathered your thoughts, you should put them together to form a design.Simple piping techniques for cake can give your creation a much-needed kick-start.

    Icing to use

    • So you’ve come up with a design. The next step is deciding on the type of frosting you’ll use for the cake piping: buttercream, Swiss meringue, buttercream, or royal icing, among others. This will be determined by the type of surface you intend to decorate: If you are piping fondant onto a cake, royal icing is preferable since it is firmer and will not damage the fondant. (The use of buttercream may result in ‘bleeding’ of the fondant).
    • It is preferable to use the same recipe whether you are piping on Buttercream or Swiss Meringue. Although it is not required to use the same sort of icing as before, the use of a different color or flavor is recommended for consistency.

    Cake Piping Bag

    • Consider working in a clean area because filling a plastic piping bag may be a time-consuming operation, and you may wind up with some on the floor. So here’s what you can do to help: Place the bag into a glass and set it aside.
    • Open the bag until the edges of the glass are covered, ensuring that you have the correct cavity to place the filling in.
    • Make the frosting
    • As soon as you are finished, lay the bag down on a level surface.
    • Twist the bag to keep the frosting in place.
    • Before you begin piping, squeeze a little amount of the icing to eliminate any bubbles.

    Holding a Piping Bag

    1. Make a cone out of it and make sure the top is completely sealed so that the icing will only come out from the front and not leak out of the cone’s top. In order to fully seal the cone, it must be correctly twisted so that nothing can escape.
    2. Check to see that the top is not untwisted.
    3. Holding the pastry cone solidly between the forefinger and thumb, as if the two were a pincer, will allow you to do so successfully. Close your hand and continue pushing in order for the frosting to be placed on top of the baked good. The pressure applied by the fingers will ensure that the frosting is pressed into the cake.
    4. It is vital to keep the other hand as near to the nozzle as possible in order to retain a good grasp. Make use of the pressure you exert to guide the icing that comes out of the nozzle.
    5. Place your forefinger on the nozzle piece and keep the bag in place with the remaining three fingers on your index and middle fingers. This will ensure that the pipe is directed appropriately. It is critical that you put in a lot of practice into this method, as this will help you get better and better at it.
    1. It is usually recommended that you begin with the most basic skills and work your way up from there, if possible.
    2. It is critical that you gain confidence in this area and then gradually and steadily go to more elaborate designs after your hand has become more stable and steady.
    3. It is critical that you do not become scared by it and that you do not become disheartened if things do not turn out the way you anticipate them to when you start off.

    Continue to practice until you attain the level you wish.

    Points to remember

    • Make certain that the frosting is of the proper consistency. It shouldn’t be overly thick or too loose.
    • Organize the piping bag by placing the appropriate sort of frosting nozzle in it
    • With one hand (typically your writing hand), fill the bag with icing and lay the tip of the bag on your other hand’s index and middle fingers. Squeeze the piece over the top of the bag to ensure that the liquid flows evenly.
    • To connect the dots: Hold the bag upright with the nozzle close to the surface, squeezing a dot of icing slightly to produce the correct shape with the tip of your finger. To complete the exercise, stop squeezing, push down, and then immediately pull back up
    • To write lines, use the following format: Positioning the bag slightly away from the surface at a 45-degree angle, squeeze the icing with consistent pressure, and allowing the icing line to naturally follow the guideline to the desired location When piping, do not try to pull the bag before it comes into contact with the icing surface since you will obtain uneven thickness.
    • Cupcakes may be rotated by using a big star or plain nozzle with the bag held vertically and piping an outline of frosting around the outside edge of the cupcakes. To begin, pipe a tiny ring that overlaps. Put an end to the pressure As soon as the bag is in the center of the swirl, press the bag down and pull it rapidly to end it
    • In order to create a floral design, a cake nozzle and icing on top of the cake should be used.

    So that’s all for the fundamental pipe techniques. Try it out at home and who knows, you could just be successful.

    How to Pipe a 1M Swirl

    Using a 1M decorating tip, you can create the iconic cupcake swirl. This piping method, which can be used to decorate cupcakes, pies, cakes, and other baked goods, is simple to master and may be done with buttercream or stable whipped cream icing. For a new style and texture, you may also swap up your decorating items and use tip 2A or tip 2D instead of tip 2.

    How to Pipe a Star

    1. The star is one of the simplest and most adaptable beginner piping methods, and it is also one of the most popular.
    2. When it comes to stars, the best part is that the tip does all of the work for you…
    3. Simply squeeze and pull away from the object.

    With a vast selection of star tips available, you may use this piping method to create a border around a large character cake or to fill in the gaps of a huge character cake with frosting.So grab a piping bag and get to work!——

    How to Pipe Dots

    1. The dot is a basic technique that may be used for a variety of applications such as borders, piping meringues, and adding simple embellishments to cakes and biscuits.
    2. Simply compress the bag to produce a dot and use any round decorating tip to decorate it.
    3. If your dots still have little points after drawing the tip away, you may smooth them out by dipping your finger in cornstarch and patting it down on the dots.

    How to Pipe a Rosette

    1. Rosettes create gorgeous flower embellishments for desserts, and they are a quick and simple method to dress up a dessert in no time.
    2. If you want to create a variety of petal looks, you may pipe rosettes with drop flower points instead of the typical star tips.
    3. Standard decorating tips may be used to add miniature rosettes to a flower-covered cake, or bigger decorating tips, such as 1M or 2D, can be used to pipe enormous rosettes and take your cupcake design to a higher level of sophistication.

    How to Pipe a Shell

    Many people believe that the shell is the most popular piping method in the world. It is useful for adding accents to cakes, creating hearts and flowers, as well as a border around the cake’s perimeter. Almost any star tip may be used to create a shell, however we recommend star tip 21 for traditional border and decorating designs.

    How to Pipe a Zigzag

    1. The zigzag is a fun method for creating borders on cakes or adding texture to the edges of cakes that is made by sliding your decorating bag from side to side.
    2. When piping zigzags, keep in mind the movement of your arm as well as the pressure applied to the bag.
    3. The spacing between the waves is determined by the length of your arm, while the thickness of the line is determined by the pressure you provide while holding the bag.

    Tradition dictates that zigzags be piped with a star tip, such as tip 16, although this technique may be accomplished with any decorative tip of your choice.

    How to Pipe Grass

    1. With the help of the unique grass tip, you can add some fun and fuzzy features to your delights.
    2. This tip creates texture with ease, because to the many apertures.
    3. It’s as simple as pressing on the bag to release the icing, then pulling it up and away to create grass or fur.

    Instead of pulling the tip straight up, draw it slightly to the left or right to give it a more natural appearance.Always remember to keep your clusters close together so that the cake doesn’t peek through.

    How to Pipe Icing Leaves

    1. Add a few piped icing leaves to your buttercream flowers to give them a more lifelike appearance.
    2. Leaves may be piped directly onto your dessert or can be formed on a flower nail and frozen for later use.
    3. Decorating tip 352 is used to create the leaves.

    Also, keep in mind that leaves do not necessarily have to be green!Leaves may be piped in a variety of colors and lengths to create a more dramatic look.

    How to Pipe Swirl Drop Flowers

    1. A simple twist of the wrist is all that is required to create a spiral drop flower.
    2. These flowering beauties, created with tip 224 (for normal flowers) or tip 2D (for bigger flowers), start out looking like a star, but as you compress the icing bag, you twist your wrist outward to produce overlapping petals.
    3. Using a huge nonpareil sprinkle or a dot of frosting for the center, you’ll have a garden full of delicious flowers in no time!

    How to pipe icing decoration on a cake

    1. In order to successfully pipe cake embellishments, it is critical to get the icing consistency just perfect.
    2. It should be able to maintain its shape in the bowl.
    3. If the frosting is too thick, it will break, and if it is too thin, it will lose its form.

    To make basic pearls, use a tiny plain nozzle with a round tip.Maintain an erect position with the bag so that it is nearly touching the top of the cake.Squeeze gently from the top of the bag to release the air.Before you transfer the piping bag, you should stop squeezing it.The same approach may be used to generate stars by using a nozzle in the shape of a star.Cake edging may be formed by holding a piping bag fitted with a star nozzle at an angle to the cake while piping the frosting.

    Make a generous star of icing using your squeezer.Remove the tip from the icing and draw it toward you as you lower it.This will form a pointed ″tail″ of frosting.Continually coat the cake’s edge with the frosting until it is fully covered.Use your fingers to squeeze the top of the bag to form a little clockwise spiral, which will make your border more decorative.At the bottom of the spiral, release the pressure that has built up.

    Pipe another anti-clockwise spiral overtop of this ″shell″ to complete the pattern.Continue in this manner, overlapping the shells.Always pipe into thoroughly set icing in order to be able to simply scrape out any mistakes.If you’re piping words onto your cake, first mark out the letters using a toothpick to use as a guide before you start.It is possible that you may require a runnier icing for flowing lines and letters.

    See also:  What To Add To White Cake Mix?

    How To Pipe A Cake

    1. To convert an ordinary cake into something worthy of celebration, Chef Kate Cavotti shows viewers how to use basic icing piping methods.
    2. She begins by gathering her supplies, which include a basic frosted cake, two pastry bags, two star tips, and a basket weave tip, among other things.
    3. She starts by using the basket weave tip to create a basket weave design around the edges of the cake – one side has teeth, the other is straight – and continuing around the entire cake.

    Her first line is drawn vertically from the top edge of the cake to the bottom edge, and then she draws two short horizontal lines over the first line to the bottom edge of the cake.She repeats this pattern around the perimeter of the cake, resulting in a basket weave design around the entire cake.Following that, chef Cavotti begins working on the bottom of the cake, creating a shell pattern along the cake’s base with a star tip.In this position, she holds the bag almost horizontally to the cake, piping a dot onto the cake and drawing it out into a tail.After she has completed the bottom border of the cake, she will pipe a shell design around the top rim of the cake.For a rosette, she lifts the bag straight up and down a few millimeters from the top of the cake, pipes a circle, and then pulls the bag away from the cake.

    Do you want to be a little more posh?She recommends placing a strawberry on top of each rosette.A couple rosettes using the shell method are piped before she moves on to a cupcake with the same technique.Making use of a bigger star tip, she creates an elaborate design on the top of the cupcake, icing it fully in one continuous swirl.In the field of professional culinary education, The Culinary Institute of America has been setting the bar for quality for more than 60 years now.In this video series, professional chefs and instructors demonstrate how to master fundamental cooking methods.

    They include: Hello, my name is Chef Cavotti and I’m from the Culinary Institute of America.Today, I’m going to demonstrate you a kitchen fundamental: simple piping methods.I have a few items on the counter in front of me that can assist you in turning your basic cake into something a bit more spectacular.In addition to a basic completed cake, I also have two pastry bags and three pastry tips – one to perform a side pattern known as a basket weave, and two star tips, one tiny and one big – to use on it.Along with that, I have a little plate that I’m going to use to assist elevate the cake on the side that I’m now working on while I’m doing the basket weaving technique.

    • A basket weave tip is a tip that has one side that is straight and one side that is dotted with teeth.
    • Simply pressing down on the cake’s very top will result in a single straight line running all the way down the cake’s side and back up again.
    • Now, in order to construct the basket weave, I must draw some horizontal lines.
    • Drawing a horizontal line over the straight line that I piped, stretching out on the sides, will be drawn at the very top border of the design.
    • I’ll leave a space between each horizontal line and then repeat the process.
    • Approximately the same width as my pipe tip is the gap that exists in between my two horizontal lines.
    • In order to create a vertical line, I’ll pipe over the border of the horizontal lines I just piped – leaving a space between vertical lines that’s approximately the width of the pastry tip – then pipe a straight line down to the bottom of the sheet pan.
    • There is an open square here for my next horizontal line (and this is where things get a little confused), so I’ll place my tip into that square and pipe across.
    • The following one is also placed in the open square.
    • And I’m still working on it; the next step will be to add a vertical line.
    • My squares are now in various locations, but I’m still going to draw my horizontal lines from the inside of each square to the outside of the squares, crossing my vertical line.
    • Once more, starting from the inside of the square and moving across the vertical line.
    • Eventually, you’ll travel all the way around and try to align them so that the horizontal lines are perfectly aligned in the end.
    • A simple basket weaving may be used to spruce up your cake just a little bit.
    • When you’ve completed your basket weave all the way around your cake, you’ll want to do something with the very bottom of your cake to give it some structure.
    • I’m going to use a fine star tip for this.
    • I don’t need to raise the cake any more for this, so I’ll just remove the plate from the bottom of the cake.

    To pipe, I’m going to hold the bag nearly horizontally to the cake and pipe a dot and pull a tail, and pipe a dot and pull a tail, and it’s going to create a wonderful smooth shell border that goes all the way around.Applying a border to the bottom of the cake helps to close the space or gap between the cake and whatever you’re putting it on and makes it look more professional.Now I’ll demonstrate a couple of different options for decorating the top of your cake.

    For the same decoration on top that I used on the bottom, the shell border, I hold my pastry bag at a little angle just at the very edge of the pastry bag and pipe it on.I apply pressure, pipe a dot, and then draw a tail, and then pipe a dot, and then pull a tail, and so on until I reach the desired length.This will result in a rim around the very top edge of your cake, which is perfect.To begin, pipe a dot and then pull a tail, pipe a dot and then draw a tail, and so on.Another decorating method I’ll show you is how to make a rosette from a flower.

    Hold your pastry bag nice and straight and apply pressure until you see the frosting touch the cake, then turn around in a circle and remove the pastry bag.You may repeat the process on the next piece: wait for it to come down to the cake, pipe around in a circle, and detach from the pipe.It produces a pleasing circular motion.A couple of strawberries have been split in half, and I may use the rosette to elevate one of them, which will indicate to my visitors that there is some sort of strawberry on the interior of the cake, or I can simply use it to give a splash of color on top of my cake.It is possible to utilize the same motion we used to create the rosette to create another border that is a little nicer than the shell border we previously learnt.

    I’m going to pipe a rosette with a tail at the end of it; then another rosette with a small tail at the end of it.This piece mixes the shell border I created at the start of the project with the tail and the rosette that I created at the conclusion.That is a brief overview of some very simple piping methods that you may use on your cake.You may now utilize one of those ways to design a cupcake, if you so choose to.I’m going to put this dessert away.I’m working on a cupcake right now, and I’m using a star tip that’s significantly larger than the one I used to design the cake.

    When it comes to decorating my cupcake, I’m going to utilize one large rosette.We’ll use the same approach we discussed previously, holding the tip straight up and down in the centre of my cupcake, right in the center of my cupcake.In order to see the icing drop down, I put a small amount of pressure to the top of the cupcake, creating an even larger rosette all around the exterior.This makes a lovely adornment for the top of the cupcake.You could even decorate the top with a raspberry if you wanted to.Wishing you a successful decorating project!

    How to decorate a cake – piping

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    The BBC Good Food kitchen team demonstrates how to use a piping bag to create easy cake decorating methods such as swirls, dots, and lines, with the assistance of the audience.

    Points to remember

    • Make certain that the icing is the proper consistency for piping, not too thick or runny, before beginning.
    • In a piping bag, place the nozzle that will be used. With one hand (typically your writing hand), fill the bag with icing and screw the end shut. With the other hand, rest one of the bag’s tips on the counter. Squeeze the icing from the top of the bag to ensure that it flows evenly through
    • Using a pastry bag, hold it vertically and near to the surface
    • squeeze a little amount of icing from the bag to create dots of the appropriate size
    • repeat until the bag is empty.
    • In order to complete, stop squeezing, press down, and then raise your arms sharply
    • How to draw lines with icing: hold the bag at a 45-degree angle, just off the surface, squeeze out the icing with consistent pressure, and allow the line of icing fall naturally into position as you guide it. Avoid pulling the piping bag before the icing has reached the surface of the cake, since this will result in an uneven thickness.
    • When piping swirls on cupcakes, start with a big star or plain nozzle and hold your bag vertically while pipeing an outline around the outside of the cupcake. Pipe a smaller ring on top of the first, overlapping it. If you want to finish quickly, stop applying pressure when you reach the center of your swirl
    • then push the bag down and bring it up swiftly to finish.
    • To create a flower design on the cake, use a star nozzle to dot the icing on top of the cake.

    Watch our video on how to frost a cake with buttercream to learn more about cake decorating ideas and techniques.


    Make sure you don’t overfill your piping bag, otherwise the icing will start to leak out the top. Squeeze the bag from the top, rather than the middle of it.


    It’s important to make sure your icing isn’t too thick (because it will require more power to pipe) or too thin (because it will flow out of the bag and lose its form).

    Comments, questions and tips

    Piping – Wikipedia

    1. The term ″piping″ refers to a system of pipes that is used to transport fluids (liquids and gases) from one point to another in industry.
    2. The engineering field of pipeline design is concerned with the efficient transfer of fluids through pipes.
    3. Industrial process pipe (as well as the in-line components that go with it) can be made of a variety of materials, including wood, fiberglass, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic, copper, and concrete.

    It is customary for in-line components, such as fittings, valves, and other devices, to sense and control parameters such as pressure, flow rate, and temperature of the transmitted fluid.These components are typically classified as part of the field of piping design (or piping engineering), though sensors and automatic controlling devices may alternatively be classified as part of the field of instrumentation and control design.P&IDs (piping and instrumentation diagrams) are used to document piping systems (P&IDs).The tube cleaning procedure can be used to clean pipelines if this is essential.Piping design, which is the comprehensive specification of the actual piping arrangement within a process plant or commercial facility, is also referred to as piping in some cases.The term ″drafting″ was once used to refer to the process of creating technical drawings, engineering drawings, and designs.

    Today, designers who have learned how to utilize computer-aided drawing (CAD) or computer-aided design (CAD) software are more typically used to describe this process.Pipelines, or plumbing, are a type of fluid transportation system with which most people are aware, as they are responsible for delivering potable water and fuel to their residences and places of work.Additionally, plumbing pipelines remove waste in the form of sewage and allow for the venting of sewage gases to the outside environment.Fire sprinkler systems also make use of pipework, which may convey nonpotable or potable water, as well as other fire-fighting substances, as well.Piping is also used in a variety of other industrial purposes, including the transportation of raw and semi-processed fluids for the purpose of refining them into more valuable products.Inconel, titanium, chrome-moly, and a variety of other steel alloys are some of the more unusual materials that are employed in pipe production today.

    Engineering sub-fields

    According to generalizations, industrial pipeline engineering is divided into four key sub-fields: Material for Piping

    Stress analysis

    1. The routing, nozzle loads, hangers, and supports of process and power piping are typically checked by pipe stress engineers to ensure that the allowable pipe stress is not exceeded under various loads such as sustained loads, operating loads, pressure testing loads, and so on as stipulated by the ASME B31, EN 13480, GOST 32388, RD 10-249, or any other applicable codes and standards.
    2. When piping is subjected to normal loads (such as internal pressure and temperature stresses), it is also required to examine the mechanical behavior of the pipe when subjected to infrequent and intermittent pressures, such as earthquakes, strong wind or specific vibration, and water hammer.
    3. A specialist (finite element) pipe stress analysis computer software, such as AutoPIPE, CAEPIPE, CAESAR, PASS/START-PROF, or ROHR2, is typically used to aid with this study.

    Because most steel becomes increasingly brittle when the temperature drops below normal working conditions in cryogenic pipe supports, it is vital to understand the temperature distribution under cryogenic settings.There will be stress concentrations in steel constructions, which may be created by sharp corners in the design or impurities in the steel itself.


    • The material from which a pipe is constructed is frequently used as the foundation for selecting a particular pipe. Carbon steel
    • ASTM A252 Spec Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3 Steel Pile Pipe
    • plastic piping, such as HDPE pipe, PP-R pipe, or LDPE pipe
    • low temperature service carbon steel
    • stainless steel
    • nonferrous metals, such as cupro-nickel, tantalum lined, etc
    • nonmetallics, such as tempered glass, Teflon lined, PVC, and so on
    • and a variety of other materials.
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    1. A huge hole was drilled longitudinally into the center of the logs used to make early wooden pipes, which were then connected together.
    2. Later, wooden pipes were made with staves and hoops in a manner similar to that of a wooden barrel structure.
    3. A major benefit of stave pipes is that they may be carried as a compact pile of sections on a cart and then built on site as a hollow structure to save time and money on transportation costs.

    Wooden pipes were particularly popular in mountainous areas, where the transportation of large iron or concrete pipes would have been prohibitively expensive or impossible.In comparison to metal pipes, wooden pipes were less difficult to maintain since the wood did not expand or contract as much as metal did in response to temperature variations, necessitating the installation of fewer expansion joints and bends.When opposed to metal pipes, the thickness of the wood provided some insulating capabilities to the pipes, which helped to keep them from freezing.Wood used for water pipes, on the other hand, does not decay quickly.Wood pipes are completely unaffected by electrolysis because wood is a far stronger electrical insulator than plastic pipes.When redwood was employed for pipe construction in the Western United States, it was discovered that the wood has ″peculiar qualities″ that protected it from weathering, acids, insects, and fungal development, among other things.

    While redwood pipes remained smooth and clean for an endless period of time, iron pipes, on the other hand, quickly began to scale and rust, and may finally become completely clogged with corrosion.


    • Storage of oil products in a linked pipeline for the transit of petroleum products Any plumbing system must be designed or manufactured in accordance with particular standard codes, which must be observed at all times. The following are examples of organizations that develop pipe standards: B31 series of ASME – The American Society of Mechanical Engineers As part of the ASME B31.1 Power Piping (steam piping, for example), ASME B31.3 Process Piping, ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids, as well as oil and gas, ASME B31.5 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components, ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems, ASME B31.9 Building services piping, ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems (

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is an acronym that stands for American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM A252 Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles is a standard specification for welded and seamless steel pipe piles.

    API is an abbreviation for the American Petroleum Institute. Petroleum and natural gas industries—Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems (API 5L).

    • The Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) and the European Metallic Industrial Piping Code (EN 13480) are both acronyms for ″European Metallic Industrial Piping Code.″ EN 13480-1 Metallic industrial piping – Part 1: General
    • EN 13480-2 Metallic industrial piping – Part 2: Materials
    • EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping – Part 3: Design and calculation
    • EN 13480-4 Metallic industrial piping – Part 4: Inspection and testing
    • EN 13480-5 Metallic industrial piping – Part 6: Inspection and testing
    • EN 13480-6 Metallic industrial piping – Part 7: Inspection and testing
    • EN 13480-7 Metallic industrial piping – Part 8: Inspection and Part 4: Fabrication and installation of metallic industrial plumbing (EN 13480-5)
    • Metallic industrial piping The European Standard EN 13480-6 specifies the inspection and testing of metallic industrial pipework. Additional standards for underground plumbing in metallic industrial piping (PD TR 13480-7), Part 6 of Metallic Industrial Piping EN 13480-8 Metallic industrial piping – Part 8: Additional requirements for aluminum and aluminum alloy piping
    • EN 13941 District heating pipes
    • EN 13480-8 Metallic industrial piping – Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures
    • EN 13941 District heating pipes
    • EN 13941 District heating pipes
    • GOST, RD, SNiP, and SP – Russian pipe standards and codes Power piping
    • GOST 32388 Process piping
    • HDPE piping
    • SNiP 2.05.06-85 & SP 36.13330.2012 Gas and oil transmission piping systems
    • GOST R 55990-2014 & SP 284.1325800.2016 Field pipelines
    • SP 33.13330.2012 Steel Pipelines
    • GOST R 55596-2013 District heating networks
    • SNiP 2.05.06-85 & SP 36.13330.2012 Gas and oil transmission piping systems
    • EN 1993-4-3 (European Standard 1993-4-3). Eurocode 3 — Design of steel structures — Part 4-3: Pipelines
    • AWS — American Welding Society
    • AWWA — American Water Works Association
    • MSS — Manufacturers’ Standardization Society
    • ANSI — American National Standards Institute
    • NFPA — National Fire Protection Association
    • EJMA — Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association
    • introduction to pipe stress-minute)
    • introduction to pipe stress-minute)
    • introduction to pipe stress-minute).

    See also


    Further reading

    • ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2 from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual OST220-03-01-ESM
    • Seismic Design and Retrofit of Piping Systems, July 2002 from the American Lifelines Alliance website
    • ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2 from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual OST220-03-01-ESM
    • ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2 from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards
    • Engineering and design, as well as liquid process piping The whole engineer’s handbook is available online (index page) In May 1999, the United States Army Corps of Engineers published EM 1110-l-4008, which is entitled Integral Principles of The Structural Dynamics of Flow. Written by L G Claret

    External links

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pipes.
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual OST220-03-01-ESM
    • Seismic Design and Retrofit of Piping Systems, July 2002 from the American Lifelines Alliance website
    • ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2 from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual OST220-03-01-ESM
    • ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2 from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual OST220-03-01-ESM
    • ASME B3
    • Pipeline Engineering and Design for Liquid Processes The whole engineer’s handbook is available (index page) the United States Army Corps of Engineers’ EM 1110-l-4008 (May 1999), Integral Principles of The Structural Dynamics of Flow
    • and L G Claret’s novel

    10 Common Cake Frosting Mistakes to Avoid

    1. It’s not nearly a slice of cake, to be honest.
    2. I’m not much of a baker, to be honest.
    3. Baking basic fast breads like banana bread, blueberry muffins, and zucchini bread is something I’ve gotten really good at, but I tend to steer clear of more sophisticated recipes.

    Because of this, when I came across this gorgeous Tahini-Blueberry Sheet Cake with Strawberry Buttercream, I decided to take the plunge and make it myself.After all, it appeared to be a very straightforward cake recipe.As simple as the quick breads I enjoy, the cake required little more than conjuring up the necessary courage to prepare the buttercream and ice the cake itself.The cake turned out to be quite scrumptious when I was finished.Small pieces of cake were left scattered throughout the icing, lumps of strawberries slathered in buttercream were thrown all over the dish, and patches of unfrosted cake pushed their way through the layers of chunky butter.My embarrassment at bringing the cake into work led me to blame its demise on the cake’s transportation (I should have read up on how to transport a cake if you don’t have a cake carrier).

    The fact is that I made some fairly egregious beginner frosting blunders that made it nearly difficult to get the beautiful, velvety-smooth swirl of buttercream that I was after.I spoke with a few people in our test kitchen to find out what the most typical mistakes newcomers make when frosting a cake are, and how to avoid making them in the future.I’m crossing my fingers that I’ll do better next time.

    Don’t Make the Frosting in Advance

    1. It doesn’t matter what kind of frosting you want to use as long as you create it immediately before you’re ready to use it to decorate your cake.
    2. Frosting is made up mostly of butter and sugar, so keeping it out at room temperature for an extended amount of time may cause it to become overly soft, and refrigerating it will cause the butter to seize.
    3. If you want to be able to work ahead of time, always create your cake before you start on the icing.

    You may either chill it overnight or freeze it on a baking sheet, separately wrapping each layer in plastic wrap and aluminum foil before serving.

    Don’t Frost a Warm Cake

    1. We understand that you’re looking forward to eating the cake.
    2. However, patience is required in order to avoid a coating of runny, unattractive icing.
    3. It is critical, according to the baking professionals in our test kitchen, to allow the cake to cool fully before icing it.

    Much better, you may let the cake sit in the refrigerator for a few hours to make the procedure even simpler and quicker.

    Don’t Overbeat the Frosting

    1. Over time, allowing your mixer to run wild will result in an excessive amount of air being introduced into the butter.
    2. When the butter and sugar are all mixed, a perfect buttercream should be creamy white in color.
    3. In a large mixing basin, slowly pour in the sugar, adding more each time you see the previous sugar addition melt into the butter, and then finish after everything is well combined.

    Overbeating will result in a product that is gritty and unattractive.

    Don’t Soften Butter to Room Temperature

    1. When you touch softened butter, it should be soft enough to hold a thumbprint, but not so soft that you can press your thumb all the way through it.
    2. The butter will get far too soft if it is overworked, so take careful not to overwork it.
    3. Our test kitchen bakers recommend removing the butter from the refrigerator approximately 20 to 30 minutes before you want to use it to keep it warm.

    In addition, icing should never be soupy or curdled in any way.This occurs infrequently when the temperature is incorrect, and it indicates that the icing has broken.After that, you’ll need to refrigerate and attempt again.

    Don’t Forget The Crumb Coat

    1. You might believe that only professional bakery cakes require a crumb coat, but the truth is that almost every multilayer cake can benefit from one.
    2. Simply spread a thin coating of icing over the entire cake and freeze for a few minutes to allow the icing to harden, sealing in any stray crumbs and producing a cold, smooth surface for the next coat.
    3. This will help to keep your top layer of icing looking nice and tidy.

    Don’t Use Just Any Spatula

    When it comes to frosting, an offset spatula is the tool of choice for our baking experts. It’s far more maneuverable than a butter knife or a rubber spatula, for example. Avoiding direct contact between the spatula and the cake itself is key to preventing tiny fragments of cake from becoming mixed up with the frosting during the frosting process.

    Don’t Use Powdered Sugar Directly From the Bag

    Using a cup of powdered sugar directly from the bag and mixing it into your butter mixture is tempting, but resist the temptation. Although it is not necessary, sifting your powdered sugar before using it will aid in the incorporation of additional air, which will allow the frosting to become light and fluffy and prevent clumps from forming inside the frosting.

    Don’t Assume the Cake is Flat

    For layer cakes to be successful, the tops must be as level as possible in order to minimize gaps or uneven surfaces. Before icing the layer, go down to eye level with it and chop away any pieces that are uneven. Once you have finished icing a layer, repeat the leveling off technique to ensure that the frosting does not result in a lopsided cake.

    Don’t Try to Make the Frosting By Hand

    The most apparent error is to assume that a mixer is required when a recipe does not specify that one is required. Do not attempt to whip your frosting by hand using a whisk. Make an investment in a high-quality stand mixer or hand mixer to ensure the highest possible quality frosting.

    Don’t Add Fresh Fruit Right Away

    1. Some frosting recipes, such as the one I attempted, call for the inclusion of additional liquid-heavy components, which I found to be the case.
    2. I made the error of adding the strawberries too early in the process, which resulted in the frosting becoming too watery.
    3. To achieve the best results, make sure the fruit is completely dry before adding it to the frosting.

    Coat the fruit pieces with powdered sugar before adding them to the frosting and gently mix them in.

    How to pipe buttercream icing

    • Recipe for buttercream frosting, the most basic of all. INGREDIENTS 1 tablespoon milk
    • 125g butter
    • 1 1/2 cups icing sugar mixture
    • 1 tablespoon flour
    • METHOD In a large mixing basin, cream together the butter and sugar until light and fluffy (about 5 minutes). Adding the icing sugar mixture and milk in little amounts at a time, mixing continually, until well mixed If you’re tinting your icing using food coloring, add the color gradually towards the conclusion of the mixing process until the desired color is reached. Set aside. Step 1 Drop a few drops of food coloring into the buttercream icing and whisk with a spoon until it is evenly incorporated through. Fill the piping bag halfway with water and insert a needle into the end of the bag. Step 3: Fold the top of the plastic bag down until it is roughly half-way down. Step 4 Spoon the buttercream icing into the piping bag and press it into the nozzle area with the back of a spoon. Step 5: Using scissors, snip the tip of the piping bag to the desired length. Create pressure and an area you can grip by twirling the bag where the mixture has been loaded up to the top. How to pipe various shapes using different materials To create star-shaped icing, use a nozzle with a fluted or star-shaped tip. In a single motion, pipe a little bit of frosting over the cooked surface of the cake. To create little swirls, use a nozzle with a fluted or star shape. Pipe the frosting in a circular motion, starting at the bottom and working your way up. To create a huge swirl, use a nozzle that is circular or fluted. Using a pastry bag, pipe the icing over the cake’s surface in the desired pattern. In order to create teardrops, a circular nozzle should be used. Pipe tiny amounts onto the cooked surface in a single motion using a pastry bag. Learn how to make two-tone icing by watching this video. Place the tinted icing mixture on one side of the piping bag and the plain icing on the other side of the piping bag. Prepare the piping bag in the same manner as before, and pipe the icing into the desired design. Learn how to make chocolate buttercream in this tutorial. 200g unsalted butter, chopped
    • 200g bittersweet chocolate, chopped
    • In a glass or ceramic dish, combine the butter and chocolate and set it over a pot of boiling water. Stir until the mixture is smooth. Remove from heat and allow it cool to room temperature. With a wooden spoon, beat the ingredients until it is thick and spreadable. Tips for making the best buttercream icing If you have the opportunity, cover the baked and cooled cakes in plastic wrap and place them in the freezer for 1 hour before frosting. This helps to set the cake, preventing crumbs from becoming trapped in the frosting and the icing from melting.
    • If you make the buttercream ahead of time, it will keep at room temperature for up to one day.
    • Bags for piping are available in a number of different sizes. A sheet of baking paper folded into a cone shape and stapled (don’t use a nozzle) can also be used for piping narrow lines if you don’t have a snap-lock bag with the corner cut off.
    • Is it possible to freeze a cake that has been iced? Many cakes, especially those with frosting, freeze nicely. In reality, the frosting acts as a protective barrier, preventing the cake from drying out. If you want to freeze an iced cake, place it in the freezer for 1-2 hours, or until the frosting has hardened completely. Take the cake out of the freezer and wrap it in two pieces of plastic wrap to keep it fresh. Re-freeze for up to 3 months after returning to the freezer. Recipes for the best buttercream frosting include: Cake with buttercream frosting
    • chocolate cupcakes with oreo buttercream
    • chocolate fondant cupcakes with roasted strawberry buttercream
    • buttercream icing
    • See also: icing recipes
    • 19 fast and easy cakes that everyone can make
    • and a list of resources.
    • The most appealing icings on the cake
    See also:  What Is A Mug Cake?

    How to decorate a cake – piping and simple decorations

    1. Using a fine mesh strainer, carefully pour in the icing sugar into the slightly melted butter (for proportions, consult our Vanilla cake recipe) and mix or whisk until smooth.
    2. The mixture should be stiff enough to keep its form properly, but not too hard that it becomes difficult to work with or you will not be able to produce a smooth finish.
    3. As a result, cool or leave at room temperature for a little longer as needed.

    Take a look at our video tutorial on how to frost a cake using buttercream.


    1. Drop the nozzle into a piping bag to use as a piping bag.
    2. A huge star is ideal for decorating cupcakes and rosettes, while a delicate round one is ideal for writing.
    3. Put icing in the bag until it is about two-thirds full, twist and hold the end with one hand (typically the one you use for writing), and rest the tip of the bag in the other.

    Use the icing to remove air bubbles by squeezing it up at the top (not the centre!) of the bag.Before you begin baking your cupcakes or cake, spray a small amount into a cup and set it aside.Holding the bag upright, pipe a ring of icing around the edge of each cupcake.Pipe a little spiral that overlaps the ring, releasing pressure when the bag is in the center of the swirl, and then pushing the bag down and drawing it up forcefully to complete the design.To make rosettes, hold the bag in the same manner as before, pipe a little dollop in one location, press the bag down, then draw the bag up abruptly to finish it off.It is possible to dab your finger in water and push it down a little if the peak is excessively high or wispy.

    The following steps are required for writing icing: filter the confectioners’ sugar into a bowl and gradually beat or whisk in a few drops of water until you have a thick, smooth paste.Using a 45-degree angle and a little distance from the surface of the cake, squeeze the icing out with consistent pressure, guiding the line of icing into position as you go.Avoid pulling the piping bag before the icing has reached the surface of the cake, since this will result in an uneven thickness.To produce dots, hold the bag vertically with the nozzle close to the surface, squeeze a small amount of icing out to make a dot the correct size, then stop squeezing, press down, and then drag the bag up abruptly to complete the design.More piping methods may be found in our video on how to design a cake, which you can see here:

    Covering a cake 

    1. Large dollop (but not runny or melty) buttercream should be placed in the center of the cake for a decorative finish.
    2. Make use of an offset spatula or a palette knife to paddle the icing to the cake’s edges.
    3. Using a tiny spatula or palette knife, apply small quantities of icing onto the edges of the cake in parts, turn the cake over, and continue.

    Using a long palette knife or ruler might help you achieve a flawless finish.Hold the ruler flat on the edge of the cake that is furthest away from you and slide it towards the direction of your face.If required, repeat the process.Take your palette knife/or a plastic side scraper (available from cake decorating websites) in one hand and hold it at a 90-degree angle to the cake to create the edge.The other hand should be used to rotate the cake.This is easier to execute on a turntable since you can complete it in a single motion.

    If this is not the case, you may need to work in parts and use the palette knife to smooth any seams.A feathery or frosted look may be achieved by pressing the flat side of a palette knife or spatula into the cake and lifting.Repeat the process for the entire cake.

    Flowers, crystallised and fresh 

    1. Select your favorite edible flowers or leaves from the list below (eg.
    2. lavender, mint leaves, pansies, primroses, rose petals, violas, violets).
    3. You may use them to decorate in their natural state or crystallize them.

    To crystallize, softly whisk an egg white until it becomes stiff.Apply the egg white to the flower, leaf, or petal using a paintbrush in a gentle, circular motion.Shake off any extra caster sugar once you’ve sprinkled it on.Place on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper.Allow to sit overnight in a warm, dry location.Store in an airtight jar lined with layers of parchment paper.

    Simple modelling 

    1. Simple sugar roses are made in the manner described by Jane Hornby.
    2. Sugarpaste or marzipan figurines, which are especially popular with children, are a wonderful touch to a themed cake.
    3. Books and photo-sharing websites are excellent sources of inspiration; start with something small and work your way up!

    Check out our Rocky robin cake for inspiration.They looked fantastic, as seen by the many photographs you gave us of yours last year!

    Sweet and chocolates 

    You may use a variety of candies and chocolates to create a variety of effects, whether they are childish, funky, glamorous, or feminine in nature. To give a few examples, we’ve utilized lollipops, liquorice, chocolate buttons, micro marshmallows, and sugared almonds, among other things.

    Fruit and nuts 

    Make no mistake: a plump fresh raspberry or a beautiful brown walnut set on top of your baked goods may make all the difference.

    Readymade decorations 

    There are several pre-made decorations available from supermarkets and specialty cake decorating businesses, among other places. Sprinkles are suitable for use on children’s cakes, colored sugar may be used to create a beautiful finish, and sugar flowers are ideal for use on springtime baked goods. Please share your cake decorating ideas and techniques with us.

    How to Pipe Cake Borders + How to Prepare a Piping Bag

    1. It is possible that this content contains affiliate links.
    2. For more information, please see my full disclosure policy.
    3. The following instruction is ideal for those who are just starting out in cake decorating.

    Despite the fact that I am a self-taught home baker and not a professional in any way, I have learned many new talents via study and practice, such as how to pipe cake borders!Now I’ve made the decision to share some of the skills I’ve gained with the rest of the world!11 basic ways are included in this cake border tutorial that will certainly make your next dessert stand out!I feel that a border may truly enhance the appearance of a cake.It may transform an ordinary frosted cake into something exquisite and lovely from something plain and basic.And they’re ridiculously simple to create!

    What type of frosting should I use?

    1. But I’m of the opinion that ″if you can pipe it, you can decorate with it,″ and buttercream and royal icing are two of the most frequent icings used for cake decorating.
    2. You may pipe a beautiful border around your cake using any type of frosting, ganache, whipped cream, or other similar substance as long as it is able to maintain its shape when piped.
    3. My Dreamy Vanilla Buttercream recipe, on the other hand, was utilized for this particular instruction.

    Not only does it pipe wonderfully, but it is also a crusting buttercream, which means that it will maintain its shape even in warm weather, so you won’t have to worry about your lovely patterns melting off your cake tops.

    Tools you’ll need

    1. In addition, you will require a decorating bag or disposable piping bags as well as piping tips.
    2. Use a coupler if you want to use many decorating tips on the same cake or cupcake.
    3. This allows you to remove one decorating tip and replace it with another without having to reassemble the cake or cupcake.

    First, let’s talk about how to prepare your piping bag for the border piping.Here’s an example of how to do so:

    How to assemble and fill a piping bag:

    Select the piping bag and tip that best suit your needs. I always use a re-usable decorating bag for large tips and disposable piping bags for smaller tips since I don’t use small tips very frequently and my decorating bags are already cut to suit larger tips when I decorate with them.

    1. If you are using disposable piping bags, insert the piping tip of your choosing into the bag, allowing it to descend as deep into the bag as it is possible to do.
    2. This will define where you will need to make your snipping cuts.
    3. If you’re using a coupler, be sure the bag is the right size for the coupler’s base.

    3.Position your scissors approximately one inch above the bottom of the piping tip.Keep your scissors in place while you push the piping tip up and then cut off the tip of the bag’s tip with them.It is important not to cut any more than necessary since your tip may come out and you will have to start over with another bag.Using a coupler, remove the ring and place the bigger piece into a piping bag, pushing it all the way down to the end.5.

    Insert the pipe tip into the coupler’s bottom opening at an angle (if you are using a large coupler, you should use a large tip, and a small coupler for a small tip).Insert the coupler ring over the pipe tip and tighten the coupler ring to hold the tip in the desired position.7.To make it easier to fill the piping bag, set it in a tall glass and fold the top of the glass over the glass.Scoop your frosting into the bag with a rubber spatula or a spoon, and set it aside for later.Do not overfill the bag; instead, fill it about three-quarters of the way.

    If you run out of frosting during piping, just re-fill the bag with more icing.9.Carefully lift up the top half of the bag and lift the entire bag out of the window pane.Push the icing all the way down to the tip with your fingertips.10.

    • Twist the top of the bag closed, then squeeze the frosting into the bowl that contains the leftover frosting.
    • 11.
    • Remove any air bubbles from the frosting by squeezing it out a little.
    • You are now prepared to begin learning the art of cake decorating now that you understand how to make a piping bag.

    What You Need:

    • Buttercream frosting, piping bag, large star tip (I used Wilton 1M, Wilton 6B, and Wilton 2D), large round tip (I used Wilton 1A), and a large round tip (I used Wilton 1A) are all required.
    • The following materials: Petal Tip
    • Coupler (optional)
    • Frosted Cake or parchment paper for practice

    Shell Border:

    1. Maintain a 45-degree angle with the piping bag
    2. and
    3. Exfoliate your hands, allowing the frosting to fluffy.
    4. Stopping and swiping to produce a tail is recommended.
    5. To ensure that the frosting fluffs out and covers the end of the previously piped shell, begin the next shell at the end of the preceding shell’s tail.
    6. Repeat the process around the entire cake.

    Rope Border:

    1. Ensure that the piping bag is held at a 45-degree angle
    2. Squeeze out the frosting with uniform pressure and roll it around in a circular motion
    3. Make sure you do not lift too high or too low, and that you maintain an equal level

    E-motion Border:

    1. Use your hands to hold the bag at a 45° angle
    2. squeeze the icing while producing a ″e″ in lowercase and cursive
    3. It is possible to prolong this motion by applying consistent pressure all the way around the cake OR to create a triple e-motion border.
    4. To do this, use the same procedure as described above, but instead of one ″e,″ produce three ″e’s.″
    5. When you get to the third ″e,″ squeeze out icing to make an extended tail with it.
    6. The following set should be started at the end of the preceding tail.

    Ruffle Border:

    1. Squeeze out frosting and rotate the bag from side to side to form ruffles. Holding a big petal tip at a 90-degree angle slightly over the edge of a cake is a good way to start. Repeat the process around the entire cake.

    Star Border:

    1. To pipe on the cake, hold the piping bag at a 90-degree angle just over the surface of the cake.
    2. Make careful to squeeze out the icing with uniform pressure.
    3. Slowly relieve pressure on the piping bag while elevating it to produce a point
    4. and

    Poof Border:

    1. This border is created using the same approach as the star border, with the exception being the use of a big round tip.
    2. Squeeze out the icing until it reaches the appropriate size for your poof if necessary.
    3. Squeezing the bag while lifting it gradually creates a point, which is then released when lifting it again.

    Reverse Shell Border:

    1. Squeeze the frosting out of the piping bag and move the tip in a counter-clockwise motion while holding the bag at a 45 degree angle.
    2. To make a tail, come to a complete stop and drag the tip away. Basically, you’re making a 9.
    3. Start the next shell from the bottom of the previous tail and work your way up the tail in a clockwise direction.
    4. Repeat the process around the whole cake, switching between counter-clockwise and clockwise shells as necessary.

    Straight and Reverse Shell Border:

    1. To make a reverse shell, follow the methods outlined above.
    2. Create a basic shell directly next to the

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